1 逍遙遊第一
 
北冥有魚,
 
 
北冥 (běi bò běi míng)
NPpr The Northern Darks
 
(míng)
n the dark waters, the obscure waters; the mythical sea
 
(míng)
v[adN] figurative the (northern) dark
 
(yǒu)
vi N{SUBJ} exist as a living being, live
 
(yú)
n definite a certain fish
其名為鯤。
 
 
(míng)
npost-npro npro-s name
 
(wéi)
vt+N count as N, be Npr, be an N
鯤之大,
 
 
(dà)
nab feature being big; big size (of a state etc.); large range
不知其幾千里也。
 
 
不知 (bù zhī)
VPt0oS (one) does not know the answer to S; it is unknown whether S
 
(jī)
vadV{NUM}.adN how many?
 
(jī)
vadV{NUM}.adN how many?
化而為鳥,
 
 
(huà)
vtoN middlevoice to get transformed
 
(huà)
vi middle voice be transformed, be completely changed
 
(wéi)
vt+N become (ruler, one's own enemy etc)
 
(niǎo)
n 化為鳥 "it turns into a bird": the general word for any kind of bird
其名為鵬。
 
 
(míng)
npost-npro npro-s name
 
(wéi)
vt+N count as N, be Npr, be an N
鵬之背,
 
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 genitive N2 inalienably attached to N1:  鵬之背 "the back of the Peng" 人之志 "the aspirations of man" the N2 that inalienably belongs to or is attached to N1
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 genitive N2 inalienably attached to N1:  鵬之背 "the back of the Peng" 人之志 "the aspirations of man" the N2 that inalienably belongs to or is attached to N1
 
(bèi)
n back
不知其幾千里也;
 
 
不知 (bù zhī)
VPt0oS (one) does not know the answer to S; it is unknown whether S
 
(zhī)
vtoNPab{S} know that (S); (not) know whether (S)
 
(lǐ)
n{PRED} be so-and-so many leagues in size
怒而飛,
 
 
(nù)
vi act puff oneself up by breathing heavily
 
(ér)
padS1.post-S2 temporal 怒而飛 "puffs itself up/breathes heavily and then takes flight" then (also sometimes before nominal minor sentences)
 
飛/蜚 (fēi)
vi inchoative fly off
其翼若垂天之雲。
 
 
(qí)
npro.adN genitive N is an inalienable part of npro 其心 "his heart"
 
(ruò)
vtoN 若垂天之雲 "be like clouds hanging from the sky": be like, resemble
 
()
vtoN stative hang from, dangle from
 
(zhī)
npropostV.adN V modifies N 執鞭之士 "gentlemen holding the whip"
 
雲/云 (yún)
n cloud
是鳥也,
 
 
(shì)
npro[.adN] deictic 是鳥也 "As for this bird...": This N, as described above
 
(niǎo)
n 化為鳥 "it turns into a bird": the general word for any kind of bird
 
(yě)
ppostN.+V N=nonhu after topics other than personal names
海運則將徙於南冥。
 
 
(hǎi)
ncc sea
 
(yùn)
vi process course along on a revolving circular course (typically said of stars in the Heavens)
 
(zé)
vadS1.post-S2 then, at that time specified in the preceding (often minor) sentence
 
(zé)
vtoS1.post-S2 general then, in every case
 
(xǐ)
vt+prep+N move to, migrate to
 
(xǐ)
vt+prep+N move to, migrate to
南冥者,天池也。
 
 
(zhě)
npro.post-Npr:adS non-narrative proper name topic marker
 
(zhě)
npro.post-N{PRED} quotation topicaliser of quotation "...", so-called ""
 
(tiān)
nadN 天池也 "is the Pond of Heaven": of Heaven; heavenly; in Heaven
 
(tiān)
nadN 天池也 "is the Pond of Heaven": of Heaven; heavenly; in Heaven
 
齊諧者,
 
 
(qí)
vadN levelling, evening out, putting things on a par
 
(xié)
n 齊諧 "the tall tales that put all on a par": loose talk
 
(xié)
v[adN] jocular [talk]
 
(zhě)
npro.post-N{PRED} topic marker (unspecified)
志怪者也。
 
 
(zhì)
vtoN to record, make a record of; commemorate; write about
 
(guài)
v[adN] weird things
 
(zhě)
npro.post-V a certain a certain, unidentified but in principle identifiable by the speaker, who
 
(yě)
ppostadN{PRED} identification be identical with N
曰:
 
 
(yuē)
vt+N copula be; be called; of texts: run as follows
「鵬之徙於南冥也,
 
 
(zhī)
npro.postadN:adNab 老之將至 "the coming arrival of old age" nominaliser converting a sentence with a verbal predicate into an abstract nominalisation
 
(xǐ)
vt+prep+N move to, migrate to
 
(yě)
ppostadNPab{S}. V{PRED} temporal marking temporal subordinate clause: When
 
(yě)
水擊三千里,
 
 
(shuǐ)
nm water
 
(jī)
vtoN figurative be whipped up
 
(lǐ)
npostadV V over an area of so-and-so many leagues
摶扶搖而上者九萬里,
 
 
(tuán)
vi circulate; move in circles
 
扶搖 (fú yáo)
VPi act whirl up in flight
 
(shàng)
vi act move upwards (into the air)
 
(shàng)
vt[oN] go up; move upwards
 
(lǐ)
vi extend over so-and-so-many leagues (in any direction)
去以六月息者也。」
 
 
(qù)
nab act leaving
 
(yǐ)
vtoN e.g. 必以信 "be sure to conform to good faith": use/conform to as a standard of behaviour
 
(xī xí)
nab event derived breathing>blowing: winds
 
(xī)
nab figurative gale, storm
野馬也,
 
塵埃也,
 
 
塵埃 (chén āi)
NPm dust and dirt (of all kinds)
生物之以息相吹也。
 
 
生物 (shēng wù)
NP living creatures
 
(zhī)
npro.postadN:adNab 老之將至 "the coming arrival of old age" nominaliser converting a sentence with a verbal predicate into an abstract nominalisation
 
(yǐ)
vtoN.adV using as an instrument> e.g. 以卵投石 "dash a stone with an egg" by means of, with
 
(xī)
nm breath
 
相/相 (xiàng)
npro{OBJ}+Vt object one another
 
(chuī)
vtoN blow, blow on, blow at; puff; play (a wind instrument); blow about
 
(yě)
ppostadN{PRED} classification is to be classified as N
天之蒼蒼,
 
 
(tiān)
n concrete the sky
 
蒼蒼 (cāng cāng)
NPab feature intense blueness
 
(cāng)
n.red blue hue, blue colour
其正色邪?
 
 
(qí)
npro.adN singular: the subject's, her, his
 
(zhèng)
vadN ojectively correct; prescribed and correct or efficient
 
(zhèng)
vadN true, real
 
(sè)
其遠而無所至極邪?
 
 
(qí)
padS1.post-S2 or shall we, or should we?; or perhaps; either... or;Note OBI: 其 V 其弗 V: whether we V or not ZGC: 其不乎? "or not?"
 
(yuǎn)
vi be distant; be far away, be far off; be a long way; go a long way
 
無所 (wú suǒ)
PPadV at no stage; not in any way; in no way 無所成名
 
(zhì)
vtoN reach, get to
 
(jí)
n extreme limit; ultimate point
其視下也,
 
 
(qí)
npro.adV time when when the subject
 
(xià)
n[adN] what is low in the terrain; what is below one
 
(yě)
亦若是則已矣。
 
 
(yì)
padV subject likewise, also (sometimes with omitted antecedent, as in 盜亦有道乎?)
 
若是 (ruò shì)
VPi be like this
 
(ruò)
vtoN 若垂天之雲 "be like clouds hanging from the sky": be like, resemble
 
(zé)
vtoS1.post-S2 general then, in every case
 
(yǐ)
vi act desist, give it a break; stop at a certain point, leave it at that, leave things as they are and do nothing about them
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