1 初見秦第一
 
臣聞:
 
 
(chén)
n[post-npro2.][post=npro1] I, your servant (not necessarily minister or even official); I your son(!!!)
 
(wén)
vtoS object=fact learn that S, hear that S
「不知而言,
 
 
(zhī)
vt(oN) know it, know anything about the contextually determinate thing
 
(yán)
vt(oN) speak up on a contextually determinate matter
不智;
 
 
智/知 (zhì)
vi be intellectually competent; intellectually excellent
知而不言,
 
 
(zhī)
vt(oN) know it, know anything about the contextually determinate thing
 
(yán)
vt(oN) speak up on a contextually determinate matter
不忠。」
 
 
(zhōng)
vi act do one's loyal best; be loyal in action
為人臣不忠,
 
 
(wéi)
vtoN.adV copula as (a minister etc)
 
人臣 (rén chén)
NP{N1adN2} nonreferential a minister; ministers (non-referential)
 
(chén)
n(post-N) minister of the contextually determinate superordinate person
當死;
 
言而不當,
 
亦當死。
 
 
(yì)
padV.post-S also under the circumstances specified in S
 
(dāng)
vt+V[0] deserve to (be rewarded or be punished)
 
雖然,
 
 
雖然 (suī rán)
VPi[0]adS1.postS2 nonetheless, although this may be so
臣願悉言所聞,
 
 
(yuàn)
vt+V[0] hope that; wish one could; wish one could have; aspire to; would like to
 
(xī)
vadV object all objects; all objects completely
 
(suǒ)
npro{OBJ}+Vt definite the object which
 
(wén)
vtoS object=fact learn that S, hear that S
唯大王裁其罪。
 
 
(wéi)
vtoS nourish the humble hope that; hope politely
 
大王 (dà wáng)
 
(cái)
vtoN define and apportion (guilt), give proper shape to
 
(qí)
 
(zuì)
nab act criminal offence, deliberate illegal act; punishable crime; grave fault
 
臣聞:
 
 
(chén)
n[post-npro2.][post=npro1] I, your servant (not necessarily minister or even official); I your son(!!!)
 
(wén)
vtoN be told as a reliable truth; hear about (something); have been told about; learn (from an authoritative source) as true; learn about (a battle or war etc., or a doctrine); later, XUN 1: come to hear, simply acoustically, without connotations of understanding and learning; hear that (something either true or false) CHECK ATTRIBUTIONS!
天下陰燕陽魏,
 
 
(yīn)
nadN (the state of Yān) which is in the north
 
(yáng)
nadN (the state of Wèi) in the south
連荊固齊,
 
 
(lián)
vtoN link up with, make diplomatic ties with
 
(jīng)
npr name of a city and of a state
 
(gù)
vtoN make a firm alliance with
收韓而成從,
 
 
從縱/縱 ()
nab social vertical alliance
 
(shōu)
vtoN assemble; garner; take in, allow to join; gather in; gather up, gather together (one's things)
 
(chéng)
vtoN to achieve, to form (an alliance)
將西面以與強秦為難。
 
 
西 (xī)
n{PLACE}adV towards the west; on the western side, in the western part
 
(miàn)
vi act turn about (with preceding adverb: 西面 "turn westwards"
 
(yǔ)
vtoN.adV for (often marking the indirect object)
 
強/強 (qiáng)
vadN non-restrictive non-restrictive adjective: (presupposed to be) strong
 
(wéi)
vtoN figurative produce (problems etc)
臣竊笑之。
 
 
(qiè)
vt+V[0] in polite speech: take the liberty of V-ing; humbly permit oneself to, humbly allow oneself to (NB 竊不敢...)
 
(xiào)
vtoN disdainful normally: find ridiculous and laugh at, sneer at
世有三亡,
 
 
(shì)
n 舉世皆濁 this vulgar world; the world one lives in, this world; Rousseau: le monde; this world versus the other worlds entered by the immortals
 
(wáng)
nab.post-V{NUM} process ruination, ruin (may be counted) 三亡
而天下得之。
 
 
(dé)
vtoNab figurative obtain (abstract things like the Way etc), acquire features
 
(dé)
vtoN change come to have (not having tried to get)
其此之謂乎!
 
 
(qí)
padV subjective presumably, - I suppose -, perhaps; apparently???
 
(cǐ)
npro abstract this situation, this fact, this state of affairs 如此
 
(wèi)
vtpostN1pro.postN1 be relevant or important (to the present situation etc)
 
臣聞之曰:
 
「以亂攻治者亡,
 
 
(yǐ)
vtoN.adV e.g. 以編戶之民 "as a simple person from an ordinary home" as a, being a; in one's capacity as a 
 
(luàn)
nab factual something chaotic; a chaotic state; a chaotic situation, political chaos
 
(chí)
n subject that which is functioning well, that which is well-ordered and well-governed
 
(wáng)
vi change lose out; be ruined, be annihilated, be ruined
以邪攻正者亡,
 
 
(xié)
v[adN] subject nominalisation: something that is wicked; something that is heterodox
 
(zhèng)
n subject what is correct
以逆攻順者亡。」
 
 
(nì)
n subject what is unnatural, what goes against the grain; obstinacy, recalcitrance
 
(shùn)
v[adN] nonreferential those who are obedient
 
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