1 鹽鐵論卷一
 
1.1《本議第一》
 
惟始元六年,
 
有詔書使丞相、御史與所舉賢良、文學語。
 
 
丞相 (chéng xiàng)
NP title prime minister
 
御史 (yù shǐ)
n minister of justice
 
(jǔ)
vtoN recommend for promotion
 
賢良 (xián liáng)
VP[adN] N=hum men of excellent talent
 
文學 (wén xué)
NPadN nonreferential men devoted to literary pursuits and to the liberal arts, intellectuals
問民間所疾苦。
 
 
民間 (mín jiān)
NPadV among the people LUNHENG
 
疾苦 (jí kǔ)
VPtoN feel currently and urgently distressed by
文學對曰:
 
 
文學 (wén xué)
NP[adN] definite the group of litterati
「竊聞治人之道,
 
 
(qiè)
vadV humbly
 
(qiè)
vt+V[0] in polite speech: take the liberty of V-ing; humbly permit oneself to, humbly allow oneself to (NB 竊不敢...)
 
(wén)
vtoS object=fact learn that S, hear that S
 
(chí)
vtoN to reduce to order; to put in order (the administration etc); to be in administrative charge of, to deal with, take care of; to be in charge of, take administrative responsibility for; to regulate, make regular, control (as breath)
防淫佚之原,
 
 
(fáng)
vtoN guard against; prevent
 
(fáng)
vtoN guard against; put a stop to
 
淫佚 (yín yì)
NPab act willful lawlessness; recklessness
 
(yuán)
nab metaphysical basic causes
廣道德之端,
 
 
(guǎng)
vtoN make widely known; spread widely news of
 
(duān)
nab metaphysical psychological basis (see also FEELING); basic elements; basic point made; basic orientation; point of view, approach; basic motives
抑末利而開仁義,
 
 
(yì)
vtoN restrain, constrain; chastise
 
(mò)
nadN marginal
 
(kāi)
vtoN encourage; open up possibilities for
 
仁義 (rén yì)
NPab act moral and kindly appropriate behaviour
毋示以利,
 
 
示/視 (shì)
vtt(oN1.)+vtoN2 show the contextually determinate N1 N2
 
(yǐ)
vt0oN.postVt e.g. 教以孝 "teach filial piety": "preposition" introducing direct object of transitive verb
然後教化可興,
 
 
教化 (jiào huà)
NPab act proper education; reforming impact; reforming moral effort
 
(xīng)
vi change come to develop strongly; get to flourish; rise to power; go strong; be on the rise
 
(xīng)
vtoN causative be made to flourish
而風俗可移也。
 
 
風俗 (fēng sú)
NPab act habits, customs (also concretely referential)
 
(yí)
vtoN passive be gradually changed (to the better)
今郡國有鹽、鐵、酒榷、
 
 
(jùn)
n province as instituted by the Qín
 
(guó)
n within empire demesne; royal domain within the empire
 
(yán)
nm man-made salt; salt; sodium chloride
 
(tiě)
nm iron
 
(jiǔ)
nm ale
 
(què)
n toll, monopoly, excise
均輸,
 
與民爭利。
 
 
(zhēng)
vttoN1.postvtoN2{OBJ} compete with N2 for N1
散敦厚之樸,
 
 
(sàn)
vtoN figurative scatter so as to cause to disintegrate
 
敦厚 (dūn hòu)
NPab psych earnest candour
 
樸/樸 (pǔ)
nab feature plainness, lack of adornment
成貪鄙之化。
 
 
貪鄙 (tān bǐ)
NPab psych greedy vulgarity
 
(huà)
nab.post-N change in the direction of N, change towards N (perhaps this should be made nab.post-Nab. The general strategy on this is not clear so far.)
是以百姓就本者寡,
 
 
是以 (shì yǐ)
PPadS1.postS2 objective for this objective reason
 
百姓 (bǎi xìng)
NP{vadN} common the (taxpaying) people (i.e. the entire population, particularly the common people like the peasants)
 
百姓 (bǎi xìng)
NP agent the people
 
(jiù)
vtoN tend to move in the direction of; tend towards, tend to strive for; go for
 
(běn)
nab.post-N metaphysical what is basic and crucial; the basic and crucial feature; basic features; primary consideration
 
(guǎ)
vi graded be few; be scarce; be in a minority
趨末者眾。
 
 
(qū)
vtoN tend towards, opt (enthusiastically) for, go for
 
(mò)
n subject what is not basic; what is marginal; what comes at the end (and not at the beginning); mere marginal symptoms (as opposed to real basic causes); non-basic professions other than military and agricultural
夫文繁則質衰,
 
 
(wén)
nab feature the dignified, fine pattern a shape makes; dignified cultured appearance
 
(fán)
vi change proliferate; archaic, poetic: be flourishing; become numerous, multiply
 
(shuāi)
vi change get weaker, decay, decline
末盛則本虧。
 
 
(zhì)
nab disposition unadorned and substantial simplicity
 
(kuī)
vi change get weakened
末修則民淫,
 
 
(yín)
vi change become frivolous and extravagant; become unrestrained
本修則民愨。
 
 
(què)
vi change become trustily diligent
民愨則財用足,
 
民侈則饑寒生。
 
 
(chǐ)
vi act extravagant in the use of money; be lavish, be excessive
 
(jī)
nab event serious famine
 
(hán)
nab event period of coldness, cold spell
願罷鹽、鐵、酒榷、均輸,
 
 
(yuàn)
vt+V[0] hope that; wish one could; wish one could have; aspire to; would like to
 
(bà)
vtoN causative cause to cease (military action); relieve ( a siege); discontinue; abolish (a monopoly)
所以進本退末,
 
廣利農業,
 
 
(guǎng)
vadV figurative widely; broadly; on a broad scale; in a wide-ranging manner
 
(lì)
vtoN causative benefit; be profitable for; provide for the good of; work for the profit of, be of benefit to
 
農業 (nóng yè)
NPab act agriculture
便也。」
 
 
便 (biàn)
vi be the appropriate thing to do
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