1 勸學篇第一
 
君子曰:
 
 
君子 (jūn zǐ)
NP nonreferential the person of elevated social status 與野人相對
 
(yuē)
學不可以已。
 
 
(xué)
nab act the attempt to learn about things (typically from a teacher) study; the pursuit of intellectual/moral self-development; learning
 
(bù)
 
可以 (kě yǐ)
VPt+V[0] e.g. 不可以 "should not, should never, must never": should should never
 
(yǐ)
vi act desist, give it a break; stop at a certain point, leave it at that, leave things as they are and do nothing about them
青、取之於藍
 
 
(qīng)
nab feature dark green/blue/grey colour, "grue"
 
(qǔ)
vttoN1.+prep+N2 取諸其懷to take (a certain amount or part N1) (from a whole or a place N2), to pick out (something N1) (from a larger group N2)
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
 
(lán)
n indigo plant
而青於藍;
 
 
(ér)
padS1.postS2 but, and yet
 
(qīng)
vt+prep+N graded be more green/blue than
 
(lán)
n indigo plant
冰、水為之
 
 
(bīng)
nm ice; layer of ice; iced water
 
(shuǐ)
nm water
 
(wéi)
vtoN constitute, produce something by transforming to it
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
而寒於水。
 
 
(ér)
padS1.postS2 but, and yet
 
(hán)
vt+prep+N graded be colder than N
 
(shuǐ)
nm water
木直中繩,
 
 
(mù)
nm piece of timber, piece of wood
 
(zhí)
vi be straight and unwarped, not bent, not crooked
 
(zhòng)
vtoN correspond exactly to, be exactly appropriate for; be in conformity with
 
(shéng)
n concrete ink-line; [MOVE THE EXAMPLES FOR THIS: sometimes intransferred sense: the legal ink-line, the line where the permissible ends and the unpermissible begins]
輮以為輪,
 
 
(róu)
vt(oN) bend
 
(yǐ)
vt(oN.)adVt e.g. 以告(君)"reported the matter (to the ruler) object marker: 把它
 
(wéi)
vtoN make/produce (physically), construct build (a platform, a house)
 
(lún)
n wheel
其曲中規,
 
 
(qí)
npro.adN feature N is a general feature of npro. 修其孝悌忠信"cultivate their filial and fraternal love, the loyality and trustworthiness"
 
(qū)
nab2 roundness
 
(zhòng)
vtoN correspond exactly to, be exactly appropriate for; be in conformity with
 
(guī)
n compass
雖有槁暴,
 
 
(suī)
vt0oS1.adS2 even if
 
槁暴 (gǎo pù)
VPi be all dry; be dried and parched
不復挺者,
 
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(fù)
vadV again (as in 復戰 "fight again, renew battle".(often of reverting to an original state:) again (失而復得"lose but regain again") occasionally and rarely adversative: on the contrary; (with negatives, not) any more, not any longer; but again
 
(tǐng)
vtoN middle voice get straightened out
輮使之然也。
 
 
(róu)
nab act twisting; bending
 
使 (shǐ)
vttoN.+V[0] pivot cause N to V, bring it about that N V-s 使之聞之 [NB: the first 之shows that the object of 使 does function as an object and not only as a subject of wén 聞. Thus technically speaking we do not have a sentence after the vt.]
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
 
(rán)
vi process happen, be so
 
(yě)
ppostadS be a matter of S, depend on S, be because of S
故木受繩則直,
 
 
(gù )
nadS1.postS2 and so, so, thus; signalling another step in argumentation, with a hardly perceivable causal meaning or without any at all
 
(mù)
nm piece of timber, piece of wood
 
(shòu)
vtoN figurative receive (worship etc) (Note the link to the passive constructions with this verb!)
 
(shéng)
n concrete ink-line; [MOVE THE EXAMPLES FOR THIS: sometimes intransferred sense: the legal ink-line, the line where the permissible ends and the unpermissible begins]
 
(zhí)
vi change become straight
金就礪則利,
 
 
(jīn)
ncc piece of metal
 
礪/厲 (lì)
n whetstone for the initial rougher work (often for the sharpening of larger implements such as weapons)
 
(zé)
vadV.postS then (after S)
 
(lì)
vi change become sharp
君子博學
 
 
(bó)
vadV figurative on a large scale, broadly; from a wide variety of sources; in a wide variety of ways
 
(xué)
vt[oN] act devote oneself to study; be devoted to study; engage in intellectual work; work to improve oneself morally/intellectually
而日參省乎己,
 
 
(ér)
padS1.post-S2 logic and 任重而道遠"his burden is heavy and the way is far"
 
(rì)
nadV time daily, every day; day in and day out; progressively generally: all the time
 
參省 (cān xǐng)
VPt+prep+N psych investigate (oneself)
 
(jǐ)
npro.postVt contrastive himself, herself
則智明
 
 
(zhī)
nab psych read zhì: consciousness, awareness, understanding; level of understanding
 
(zé)
vadS1.post-S2 then, at that time specified in the preceding (often minor) sentence
 
(míng)
vi e.g. 知道者謂之明,行道者謂之賢 be good at seeing things, be visually talented> be intelligent; be perspicacious, be enlightened
而行無過矣。
 
 
(ér)
padS1.post-S2 logic and 任重而道遠"his burden is heavy and the way is far"
 
(xíng)
nab act xìng: professional conduct, public demeanour, public conduct; personal conduct, behaviour
 
無/毋/亡/无 (wú)
vtoN lack, be without; make do without; imply no (harm or loss); lack the support of (subordinates)
 
(guò)
nab act going too far> transgression
 
(yǐ)
ppostadS1.adS2 DELETE final particle after the apodosis of a conditional clause!
 
故不登高山,
 
 
(gù )
nadS1.postS2 and so, so, thus; signalling another step in argumentation, with a hardly perceivable causal meaning or without any at all
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(dēng)
vtoN climb up, go up; also by flying: 豋天 "rise to Heaven".
 
(gāo)
vadN high; tall; sticking out high
 
(shān)
n mountain of rock; mountain (occasionally not of rock, and even man-made)
不知天之高也;
 
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(zhī)
vtoN understand properly; understand and respect properly; be sure of the workings (of something);
 
(tiān)
n concrete the sky
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 feature N2=characteristic feature: 父之道 "the way of a father" NP2 is a feature or characteristic of NP1 
 
(gāo)
nab stative great height; highness
 
(yě)
ppostadS descriptive final particle marking non-narrative judgemental descriptive statements
不臨深谿,
 
 
溪/谿 (xī)
n deep valley, ravine; valley with a stream in it
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(lín)
vtoN move (often downwards) towards, approach (and arrive at); be situated close to JIA YI, "Mourning Qu Yuan": 命臨沒 "When life is about to come to an end".
 
深/深 (shèn)
vadN deep; deep and spacious; deep and remote 深山
不知地之厚也;
 
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(zhī)
vtoN understand properly; understand and respect properly; be sure of the workings (of something);
 
(dì)
n the earth, the ground
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 feature N2=characteristic feature: 父之道 "the way of a father" NP2 is a feature or characteristic of NP1 
 
(hòu)
nab feature thickness 《禮記·檀弓上》:"天子之棺四重,水兕革棺被之,其厚三寸。"《淮南子·俶真訓》:"若夫無秋豪之微,蘆苻之厚,四達無境,通於無圻。"
不聞先王之遺言,
 
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(wén)
vtoN be told as a reliable truth; hear about (something); have been told about; learn (from an authoritative source) as true; learn about (a battle or war etc., or a doctrine); later, XUN 1: come to hear, simply acoustically, without connotations of understanding and learning; hear that (something either true or false) CHECK ATTRIBUTIONS!
 
先王 (xiān wáng)
NP definite the former kings; one series: 堯舜禹湯文武孝己
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 N1=source 雍之言 "Yong's words" NP1 is the source of NP2 
 
(yí)
vadN transmitted (from antiquity etc) 遺言
 
(yán)
nab act word; sentence; doctrine as expressed in words
不知學問之大也。
 
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(zhī)
vtoN understand properly; understand and respect properly; be sure of the workings (of something);
 
學問 (xué wèn)
NPab act study; range of studying activity
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 feature N2=characteristic feature: 父之道 "the way of a father" NP2 is a feature or characteristic of NP1 
 
(dà)
nab feature being big; big size (of a state etc.); large range
 
(yě)
ppostadS descriptive final particle marking non-narrative judgemental descriptive statements
干、越、夷、貉之子,
 
 
干/邗 (gān)
NPpr ancient state conquered by Wu, the name of this state being used in literary contexts to refer to Wu in the phrase 干越
 
(yuè)
npr name of a state
 
(yí)
npr a non-Chinese people in Zhou times; eastern barbarian; general: barbarians
 
(mò)
npr nonreferential used to refer to a Northern barbarian tribe correctly referred to as 貊, often mentioned together with the eastern Yí 夷
 
(zǐ)
n plural children
生而同聲,
 
 
(shēng)
vi middle voice get born; be born
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 after Ving, then 生而知之"knows things from birth"
 
(tóng)
vtoN stative agree as to (e.g. desires, but differ as to function); be the same in 同類 "be the same in kind"
 
(shēng)
n[post-N] N=creatures generally: sound made by any creature
長而異俗,
 
 
(zhǎng)
vi change grow; grow up properly; grow up to be adult; (of abilities) grow to get stronger, develop;
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 temporal at that point in time, then
 
(yì)
vtoN stative differ with respect to; differ in respect of; be different from
 
(sú)
nab act current local custom; temporary habit
教使之然也。
 
 
(jiào)
nab act training; drill; moral instruction; instruction
 
使 (shǐ)
vttoN.+V[0] pivot cause N to V, bring it about that N V-s 使之聞之 [NB: the first 之shows that the object of 使 does function as an object and not only as a subject of wén 聞. Thus technically speaking we do not have a sentence after the vt.]
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
 
(rán)
vi process happen, be so
 
(yě)
ppostadS be a matter of S, depend on S, be because of S
Existing SW for Word or char to annotate:
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