1 《學而篇第一》
 
1.1子曰:
 
 
(zǐ)
n[post-N] our master; person in authority [Note that the [post-N] can never in fact be made explicit without breaking the rules of the grammar! CH]
「學而時習之,
 
 
(xué)
vt[oN] act devote oneself to study; be devoted to study; engage in intellectual work; work to improve oneself morally/intellectually
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 sequence e.g. 拜而受之 "bow and accept it" and then, and thereupon;  (often coordinates two verbal predicates with the same subject)
 
(shí)
nadV appropriate at the appropriate time; when the need arises Note 非時
 
(shí)
nadV from time to time> sometimes; often; periodically; several times; at regular intervals; all the time
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt nonreferential cognate object; indefinite dummy object pronouns without reference: things, people; someone 以約失之者"Those who, through keeping to the main thing, get things wrong"
不亦說乎?
 
 
悅/說 (yuè)
vi subj=nonhuman be delightful
 
不亦 (bù yì)
PPadV.+HU1 surely
 
(hū)
ppostadS question final question particle after verbal sentence 管仲儉乎?"Was Guǎnzhòng stingy?"
有朋自遠方來,
 
 
(yǒu)
vt0oN{SUBJ} exist there are (subjects); there is 有人
 
(péng)
n[post-N] one's (own) schoolmate; comrade, friend
 
(zì)
vtoN.adV OBI 5: from; starting out from a place; 自楚之滕 "went from Chu3 to Te2ng" also a time: 所自生 "that wherefrom something is born"
 
(yuǎn)
vadN distant, far-away; from far away
 
(fāng)
n region; ZUO: other regions, local areas
不亦樂乎?
 
 
(lè)
vi subj=nonhuman of things: be delightful
人不知而不慍,
 
 
(rén)
npro nonreferential other people quite generally [NOT: the other one]
 
(zhī)
vtoN appreciate properly, recognise (a person for his true value); repect properly for what a person is
 
(zhī)
vt(oN) rightly recognize the quality of
 
(ér)
 
(yùn)
vi transitive feel resentment or indignation; feel offended; show lingering anger and resentment; show indignation
不亦君子乎?」
 
 
不亦 (bù yì)
PPadV.+HU1 surely
 
君子 (jūn zǐ)
VPi psych be gentlemanly; be high-minded 君子哉!; be superior as a person 不亦君子乎; be worthy of a person of superior character
 
(hū)
ppostadS expected answer: no! particle introducing rhetorical questions
1.2有子曰:
 
「其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者,
 
 
悌/弟 (tì)
vi act show devotion to one's eldest brother; more generally: show proper humility towards seniors in general
 
神靈 (shén líng)
NPab psych supernatural intelligence or efficacy
 
(qí)
npro.adN nonreferential his, her, its
 
為人 (wéi rén)
NPab.post-Npr natural disposition; personality, personal nature (not countable)趙歧2B6:孟子不悅其為人.
 
(xiào)
vi be characterised by feelings of filial piety and a disposition to act on these
 
孝弟 (xiào dì)
VPi have all the virtues of respectful politenes within the family
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 adversative but on the other hand; but on the contrary; and yet; but; whereas;樂而不淫"is joyful without being extravagant" between subject and predicate the word indicates that the predication is unexpected
 
(hào)
vt+V[0] be in the habit of; be prone to, tend to, have an inclination to
 
(fàn)
vtoN N=nonhu offend against, fail to obey; infringe, violate (laws etc) 民不敢犯法
 
(shàng)
n nonreferential the leadership, the authorities; one's ruler, the ruler; superiors; persons in high position
 
(zhě)
npro.post-V no definite referent generalising, hypothetical, untensed: anyone who V-s
鮮矣;
 
 
(xiǎn)
vi elevated style?: be few and far between; be sparse, be scarce, be few; be a rare case 不鮮 "be not so few"; 天下鮮矣 "there are few under the sun".
不好犯上,而好作亂者,
 
 
(hào)
vt+V[0] be in the habit of; be prone to, tend to, have an inclination to
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 adversative but on the other hand; but on the contrary; and yet; but; whereas;樂而不淫"is joyful without being extravagant" between subject and predicate the word indicates that the predication is unexpected
 
作/作/作 (zuò)
vtoN set up, originate (something), create, invent; produce; of texts: compose
 
作亂 (zuò luàn)
VPi act engage in political revolts
 
(luàn)
nab stative political chaos; political disarray, political disorder
未之有也。
 
 
(wèi)
padV negative never 未之V也 as a pattern tends to mean "have never Ved it"
 
未之有 (wèi zhī yǒu)
VP.postNPab{S} there has never been such a person/course of events S者未之有也
 
(yǒu)
vtoN have happened 有諸 "has this happened"
君子務本,
 
 
君子 (jūn zǐ)
NP nonreferential true gentleman; a person of superior character; the person of superior character 得見君子者斯可矣。
 
(wù)
vtoN aim for; be mainly concerned with as one's task, concentrate on, concentrate one's efforts on; strive for (success); be concerned to; devote one's efforts to
 
(běn)
nab.post-N metaphysical what is basic and crucial; the basic and crucial feature; basic features; primary consideration
本立而道生。
 
 
(běn)
nab.post-N metaphysical what is basic and crucial; the basic and crucial feature; basic features; primary consideration
 
(lì)
vtoN middle voice be formally established, be established and achieve proper status; be firmly established, be established as true; take a firm stance on life
 
(ér)
padS1.post-S2 logic then 本立而道生"once what is basic is established, then the Way will naturally emerge"
 
(dào)
nab metaphysical the (morally correct) Way; the proper non-substance-like abstract metaphysical principle ensuring that all is well in the world
孝弟也者,
 
 
悌/弟 (tì)
nab act fraternal love, devotion to one's eldest brother
 
孝弟 (xiào dì)
NPab{N1&N2} moral the virtues of respectful politeness within the family
 
(xiào)
nab act filial piety, devotion to one's living and dead forbears
 
也者 (yě zhě)
PPpost-N marker of topics to be discussed in general abstract terms: as for N as such (Note that the comment is never narrative: one might say that this topic marker, like 夫 has a modal function.)
其為人之本與!」
 
 
(rén)
nab act humaneness, kind empathy; kindliness, kind-heartedness; benevolence, Goodness as a moral value
 
(qí)
padV subjective presumably, - I suppose -, perhaps; apparently???
 
(wéi)
vt+N count as N, be Npr, be an N
 
(běn)
nab.post-N metaphysical what is basic and crucial; the basic and crucial feature; basic features; primary consideration
 
與/歟 (yú)
ppostadS tentative sentence final particle indicating a tentative modality: perhaps?
1.3子曰:
 
「巧言令色,
 
 
(qiǎo)
vtoN causative cause to be crafty, cause to be excessively clever
 
(yán)
nab act the gift of effective public speech, public eloquence
 
(lìng)
vtoN causative cause to be attractive
 
(sè)
n outer facial expression as expressive of an inner mental state or psychological disposition; spirit displayed
鮮矣仁!」
 
 
(xiǎn)
vadV rarely, in only a few cases
 
(yǐ)
ppostadV1.adV2 exclamatory particle placed after an emphatic focussed adverbial (which one might even suspect of being a transposed main verb)
 
(rén)
vi be kind-hearted in disposition, be humane in disposition, be of kindly disposition
1.4曾子曰:
 
「吾日三省吾身:
 
 
吾/䱷 (wú)
npro.adN 1. person singular my; our (Zhou)
 
吾/䱷 (wú)
npro 1. person singular I (unmarked, non-contrastive, weak)
 
(rì)
nadV time daily, every day; day in and day out; progressively generally: all the time
 
(sàn)
vadV thrice; three ways; in three ways; under three aspects
 
(xǐng)
vtoN figurative examine (oneself in three respects etc)
 
(shēn)
npost-N figurative N's own personality; N's own personal convictions; N's own personal character??, N's own personal characteristics; the very person constituted by N
為人謀而不忠乎?
 
 
(wèi)
vtoN.adV acting for > for something; on someone's behalf; in someone's favour; for the sake of
 
(rén)
npostVt plural other persons; other people; all the other people
 
(móu)
vtpost-.VtoN consult and plan with someone 與之謀
 
(ér)
padS1.post-S2 logic then 本立而道生"once what is basic is established, then the Way will naturally emerge"
 
(zhōng)
vt(oN) make a devoted effort for a contextually determinate superior
 
(hū)
ppostadS question final question particle after verbal sentence 管仲儉乎?"Was Guǎnzhòng stingy?"
與朋友交而不信乎?
 
 
朋友 (péng yǒu)
NP[post-N] reflexive one's own friend or colleague (of of any kind, singular or plural!)
 
(jiāo)
vtpost-.VtoN continuative entertain relations with; interact with
 
(ér)
padS1.post-S2 logic then 本立而道生"once what is basic is established, then the Way will naturally emerge"
 
(xìn)
vi subject=human be trustworthy, be reliable, show good faith; be dependable
傳不習乎?」
 
 
(chuán)
n object what has been handed down to one
1.5子曰:
 
「道千乘之國,
 
 
導/導道 (dǎo)
vtoN guide; lead
 
()
vtoN govern in a principled way
 
(shèng)
n war chariot; carriage with four horses; 魯國堯:一车四马为一乘。当时战争的形式主要是车战,一辆兵车由四匹马拉,车上有三名武装战士,后有若干步兵。古代常以兵车的多少衡量诸侯国或卿大夫封邑的大小。
敬事而信,
 
 
(jìng)
vtoN pay diligent attention to, attend diligently to
 
(shì)
nab.post-V{NUM} act (especially official) matter, especially: public task, official business; public event; public project, (military) undertaking, task; one's professional concern 五事
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 logic e.g. 謹而信"be diligent and trustworthy": and 
 
(xìn)
vi subject=human be trustworthy, be reliable, show good faith; be dependable
節用而愛人,
 
 
(jié)
vtoN be moderate in the use of (commodities); show moderation in the exercise of virtues or other practices
 
(yòng)
nab act the use of resources, the making of expenses 節用 "be economical with expenses"
 
(ér)
padV1.postV2 logic e.g. 謹而信"be diligent and trustworthy": and 
 
(ài)
vtoN love and care for, take loving care of; generally: take proper care of (one's person/life)
使民以時。」
 
 
使 (shǐ)
vtoN employ on a mission; send out as representative or ambassador; send as an emissary (to a place) (to do something)
 
(yǐ)
vt[0]oN.postadV e.g. 使民以時 "employ the people according to the seasons" in accordance with, according to
 
(shí)
nab the right time; right moment, an opportunity 大時; the moment for something; see also 遇時 "encounter opportunities"
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