1 《開宗明義章》
 
仲尼居,
 
 
(jū)
vi act sit NB: DUAN YUCAI 399 IS EXEMPLARY IN HIS EXPLANATION OF MODES OF SITTING. THE ORACLE BONE CHARACTER FOR 居 DEFINITELY REFERS TO SQUATTING AND NOT KNEELING. SHUOWEN DEFINES 居蹲也, THE SHUOWEN CHARACTER FOR 居 WHICH HAS 几 FOR 古 AND MEANS "STAY IN, LIVE IN" WAS LATER CONFLATED WITH THE ORACLE BONE CHARACTER WHICH THUS CAME TO HAVE TWO MEANINGS: 1. SIT, SQUAT; 2. STAY; AND THE LATTER HAS COME TO PREVAIL.
 
(jū)
vi act dwell at home; live in peace and quiet; stay at home opp. xíng 行 "be travelling".
曾子侍。
 
 
曾子 (zēng zǐ)
NPpr name of a confucianist philosopher
 
(shì)
vt(oN) be in polite attendance with a contextually determinate senior person
子曰:
 
 
(zǐ)
n[post-N] our master; person in authority [Note that the [post-N] can never in fact be made explicit without breaking the rules of the grammar! CH]
 
(yuē)
「先王有至德要道,
 
 
先王 (xiān wáng)
NP definite the former kings; one series: 堯舜禹湯文武孝己
 
(yǒu)
vtoN figurative have (figurative) possession of, be possessed of (e.g. the Way)
 
(zhì)
vadN perfect, consummate
 
(dé)
nab psych the highest form of virtue, true virtue, true inner power
 
(yào)
vadN graded important, crucial; essential
 
(dào)
nab metaphysical the (morally correct) Way; the proper non-substance-like abstract metaphysical principle ensuring that all is well in the world
以順天下,
 
 
(xùn)
vtoN train and instruct; encourage people to pursue (a subject)
 
(yǐ)
vt(oN.)adV e.g. 以顯父母 "in this way make the parents illustrious": using this means> by this means> in this way; with the contextually determinate object, by use of the contextually determinate object/method (the pronominal object of the preposition is omitted)
 
天下 (tiān xià)
NP[adN] N=human all the world> everyone everywhere
民用和睦,
 
 
(mín)
n indefinite people
 
(mín)
nm(post-N) the common people of the contextually determinate place, the native people, the permanently resident people
 
(yòng)
vt(oN.)adV:postN[SU]::postS in conformity with the contextually determinate conditions N (should perhaps be moved to THEREFORE)
 
和睦 (hé mù)
VPi intensitive live in harmony with each other; be in perfect harmony
上下無怨,
 
 
(shàng)
n nonreferential the leadership; those who are of superior rank, those in high social or political positions;
 
(xià)
n plur a subordinate, a (public) servant; those below, the subjects; people of low status
 
無/毋/亡/无 (wú)
vtoN lack, be without; make do without; imply no (harm or loss); lack the support of (subordinates)
 
(yuàn)
nab psych intense resentment (typically against superiors)
汝知之乎?」
 
 
汝/女 (rǔ)
npro 2. person singular familiar, informal you
 
(zhī)
vtoN understand properly; understand and respect properly; be sure of the workings (of something);
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
 
(hū)
ppostadS question final question particle after verbal sentence 管仲儉乎?"Was Guǎnzhòng stingy?"
曾子避席曰:
 
 
避席 (bì xí)
VPi inchoative leave the mat one is sitting on and stand up next to it (see XJ 1 for the decisive example which proves that standing up is indeed involved)
 
(bì)
vtoN withdraw from (a place N)
 
(xí)
n mat used as a seat
 
(yuē)
「參不敏,
 
 
(shēn)
npr the given name of Zeng1zi3 曾子
 
不敏 (bù mǐn)
VPi litotes be incompetent (typically used in polite speech of oneself)
何足以知之。」
 
 
(hé)
npro.adV expected answer: no! how on earth? How on earth could you/he/I? 回何敢死? 丘何敢乎?何足憂?
 
足以 (zú yǐ)
VPt+V[0] be capable of V-ing (NOT: be sufficient to V with); be in a position to
 
(zhī)
vtoN understand properly; understand and respect properly; be sure of the workings (of something);
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
子曰:
 
 
(zǐ)
n[post-N] our master; person in authority [Note that the [post-N] can never in fact be made explicit without breaking the rules of the grammar! CH]
「夫孝、
 
 
(fú)
npro.adS "Now,", "In fact," introducing new subject for the discourse, and introducing non-narrative theoretical discourse.
 
(xiào)
nab psych loving respect for one's parents and ancestors (see also VIRTUE)
德之本也,
 
 
(dé)
nab psych the highest form of virtue, true virtue, true inner power
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 genitive N2 inalienably attached to N1:  鵬之背 "the back of the Peng" 人之志 "the aspirations of man" the N2 that inalienably belongs to or is attached to N1
 
(běn)
nab.post-N metaphysical what is basic and crucial; the basic and crucial feature; basic features; primary consideration
 
(yě)
ppostadN{PRED} classification is to be classified as N
教之所由生也。
 
 
(jiào)
nab act training; drill; moral instruction; instruction
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 N2 nominalised by 所 N1=subject: 人之所惡 "what men hate" NP2 is nominalised by 所, and NP1 is the subject of the VP that is nominalised 
 
(suǒ)
npro{OBJ}+Vt.postN{SUBJ} npro=obj 爾所及 "what you reach"
 
(yóu)
vtoN.adV coming forth from, from
 
(shēng)
vi perfective originate; come to emerge; be naturally found in (of inanimate subjects), occur naturally in
 
(yě)
ppostadN{PRED} classification is to be classified as N
復坐,
 
 
(fù)
vadV again (as in 復戰 "fight again, renew battle".(often of reverting to an original state:) again (失而復得"lose but regain again") occasionally and rarely adversative: on the contrary; (with negatives, not) any more, not any longer; but again
 
(zuò)
vi[0] imperative sit (i.e. kneel!) down!
吾語汝。」
 
 
吾/䱷 (wú)
npro 1. person singular I (unmarked, non-contrastive, weak)
 
(yù)
vtoN report to; notify (someone), let someone know
 
汝/女 (rǔ)
npro 2. person singular familiar, informal you
「身體髮膚,
 
 
(shēn)
n body as a whole; especially the main trunk as opposed to the head; body as embodying the person
 
(tǐ)
n limb, limbs; body as constituted by its parts
 
(fà)
nm hair; human hair on the head
 
(fū)
nm the skin of humans
受之父母,
 
 
(shòu)
vttoN1.+N2 receive N1 from N2 受之父母
 
(zhī)
npro.postVt anaphoric referring to an aforementioned object: him, her, it
 
父母 (fù mǔ)
NP{N1&N2} indefinite father and mother; parents
不敢毀傷,
 
 
(bù)
vt+V[0] not
 
(gǎn)
vt+V[0] have the courage to V
孝之始也。
 
 
(xiào)
nab act filial piety, devotion to one's living and dead forbears
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 genitive N2 inalienably attached to N1:  鵬之背 "the back of the Peng" 人之志 "the aspirations of man" the N2 that inalienably belongs to or is attached to N1
 
(shǐ)
nab metaphysical beginning, the initial state as a dynamic state motivating what happens after that beginning; proper beginning; original cause, Greek: archē;
 
(yě)
ppostadN{PRED} classification is to be classified as N
立身行道,
 
 
(lì)
vtoN middle voice be formally established, be established and achieve proper status; be firmly established, be established as true; take a firm stance on life
 
(shēn)
nab[.post-N] psych often reflexive: one's (own) person; one's (own) person and character
 
(xíng)
vtoN positive enact; implement as an official; carry out as a morally responsible agent; put into practice, practise, carry out; operate according to; implement (a law) and apply it to
 
(dào)
nab metaphysical the (morally correct) Way; the proper non-substance-like abstract metaphysical principle ensuring that all is well in the world
揚名於後世,
 
 
(yáng)
vttoN1.+prep+N2 spread N1 in or to the place or time N2
 
(míng)
nab social reputation; (good or bad) name;
 
(yú)
vt[0]oN.postadV in relation to, with respect to; in the matter of
 
後世 (hòu shì)
NP plural future generations, posterity
以顯父母,
 
 
(yǐ)
vt(oN.)adV e.g. 以顯父母 "in this way make the parents illustrious": using this means> by this means> in this way; with the contextually determinate object, by use of the contextually determinate object/method (the pronominal object of the preposition is omitted)
 
(xiǎn)
vtoN causative cause to be illustrious; promote reputation of
 
父母 (fù mǔ)
NP{N1&N2} indefinite father and mother; parents
孝之終也。」
 
 
(xiào)
nab act filial piety, devotion to one's living and dead forbears
 
(zhī)
npropostN1.adN2 genitive N2 inalienably attached to N1:  鵬之背 "the back of the Peng" 人之志 "the aspirations of man" the N2 that inalienably belongs to or is attached to N1
 
(zhōng)
nab dimension the end; successful conclusion
 
(yě)
ppostadN{PRED} classification is to be classified as N
「夫孝
 
 
(fú)
npro.adS "Now,", "In fact," introducing new subject for the discourse, and introducing non-narrative theoretical discourse.
 
(xiào)
nab act filial piety, devotion to one's living and dead forbears
始於事親,
 
 
(shǐ)
vt prep V begin with V-ing
 
(shǐ)
vt+prep+N begin with, start from; start out by V-ing
 
(yú)
vt[0]oN.postadV literal in; at; to; from; by
 
(shì)
vtoN serve (as minister or aide, as one state another etc.), be in the service of; enter the services of; side with; specifically: serve and cultivate through gifts; attend to
 
(qīn)
nt(post-N) parents, one's parents
中於事君,
 
 
(zhōng)
vt prep V have one's middle or central part in V-ing
 
(zhōng)
vt+prep+N have one's middle or central part in N
 
(yú)
vt[0]oN.postadV literal in; at; to; from; by
 
(shì)
vtoN serve (as minister or aide, as one state another etc.), be in the service of; enter the services of; side with; specifically: serve and cultivate through gifts; attend to
 
(jūn)
n nonreferential the ruler as being primarily administratively in charge of people
終於立身。
 
 
(zhōng)
vt prep V end up with V-ing
 
(yú)
vt[0]oN.postadV literal in; at; to; from; by
 
(lì)
vtoN middle voice be formally established, be established and achieve proper status; be firmly established, be established as true; take a firm stance on life
 
(shēn)
nab[.post-N] psych often reflexive: one's (own) person; one's (own) person and character
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