SPEAK  

ACT so as to USE WORDS FOR SHOWING MEANING.*Speech by speaker X, directed towards audience Y, in order to communicate message Z.
TALKSAY ANYTHING/SOMETHINGUTTERSTATEDECLARETELLVOICEEXPRESSPRONOUNCEARTICULATEENUNCIATEVOCALIZEVERBALIZE.GIVE A SPEECHTALKLECTUREHOLD FORTHDISCOURSEEXPOUNDEXPATIATEORATESERMONIZEPONTIFICATEDECLAIMINFORMAL SPOUTSPIELSPEECHIFYJAWSOUND OFF.SPEAK PUBLICLYSPEAK OPENLYSPEAK FRANKLYSPEAK ONE'S MINDSOUND OFFSTAND UP AND BE COUNTED
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most colourless and general way of referring to any act of saying attributed to any subject, no matter whether animate or inanimate, something is yuē 曰, and the verb introduces direct speech.

2. Yán 言 is to speak up, propose, typically in public, and on one's own initiative, to maintain something, and the word can indroduce direct speech as well as occasionally very limited indirect speech.

3. Yǔ 語 is to say something as part of typically informal conversation. Contrast yù 語 "tell, inform" in REPORT.

4. Tán 談 refers to informal chatter, mostly with some pejorative connotation.

5. Yún 云 is used of books as well as persons and tends to refer to what are typically construed as authoritative acts of saying, and the word often has to be taken figuratively as "run as follows". (Note the perfectly regular contrast 曰 / 云 in MOUZI.)

6. Wèi 謂 is to say or predicate something of someone. See also MEAN.

7. Cí 辭 is primarily an act of careful articulation and rhetorical formulation.

8. Dào 道 "speak of with authority, speak of adequately; quote" often involves quotation or especially serious discussion of important points, or the relating of important evidence.

9. Jǔ 舉 is a technical term referring to the bringing up of a subject, and the subject of this verb is always a person, not a text.

10. Chēng 稱 refers in a rather formal historian's style to the making of statements and the applying of terminology. See also NAME.

Modern Chinese Criteria

講話

談話

聊天

談天兒

聲明

申明

話 is the general noun for speech.

言 is a literary word for words used.

語 by itself is a literary word referring to talk.

談 refers informally to dialogue.

言語 is a rather formal way of speaking of discourse.

言辭 refers to speech as a result of a deliberate act of formulation.

說話 is the most common verb for talking.

講話 refers to speech as an expression of opinion.

話語 is a rather scientific abstract term for spoken forms of language.

吐露 refers to speaking up on what ought to be kept secret.

口稱 (lit) refers to the making of a (typically opening) remark.

脫口而出 refers to blurting out a remark without proper reflection.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 18.22

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 727

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 573

LOQUI est cogitata sua voce lingvae significare alteri.

Req. 1. Aliqvis cogitans aliqvid.2. alqvis cui cogitata sua revelare velit. 3 Sina illa, per qvae cogitationes a mente illius in mentem hujus transeant, hoc est soni articulati.

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 226

GARRIRE LOQUI

267. Inter Garrire et loqui. Loquitur qui recte et temperanter dicit; garrit qui aut multa verba dicit, aut sordide loquitur.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

SAY

dicere refers to an act of saying as a means of conveying information.

aio refers to a claim that is being made.

asseverare is to affirm emphatically, and with special reference to earnestness.

affirmare refers to the claim that something is solidly certain.

contendere refers to the making of a claim as diverging froma tradition or a common assumption.

loqui refers to the act of talking as an activity by a speaker, often with connotations of idle talk.

ENUNCIATE

enuntiare is to pronounce on something that has been on one's mind.

eloqui is to formulate something that has been one one's mind with some attention to form.

enuntiatio is a logical term.

elocutio is primarily a rhetorical term.

proloqui is to speak forth, as a moral act, as opposed to reticere "keep silent on a matter".

pronuntiare refers to the physical act of elocution of sounds or words.

recitare refers to the artistically modulated recitation of a whole sentence or text in public, with due attention being paid to the meaning of the text. See CHANT.

SPEECH

verbum refers to the word as part of a complete utterance.

vocabulum refers to the word as part of a complete vocabulary.

voces refers to words with special refernce to their sounds.

vox is an expression of feeling or passion, like "exclamation".

dictum is an expression of wit or intellect, a point made.

dicterium is a late elevated word for dictum.

TALK

garrire refers to the act of talking as performed by someone habitually and excessively fond of talking.

fabulari refers to the act of talking with emphasis on the nullity of what is being said.

blatire refers to the act of talking with special emphasis on the foolishness of what is being said.

blaterari refers to the act of talking with special emphasis on the extreme and remarkable foolishness of what is being said.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 35

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 62

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 204

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

VERBUM

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 95

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 644

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 144

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.1381

WANG WEIHUI 2000 東漢﹣隨常用詞演變研究 157

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1278

言,語

1. WL claim that the object of ya2n 言 is never a person spoken to. In fact, ya2n yu2 言於 regularly means "speak to (a person of higher status)", and SSC records 62 instances of this.

ZUO Xi 30.3.2 (630 B.C.); Ya2ng Bo2ju4n 479; Wa2ng Sho3uqia1n et al. 356; tr. Watson 1989:65; revised tr. CH

佚之狐言於鄭伯曰: Yi4 Zhi1hu2 delared in front of the Earl of Zhe4ng:

2. In many contexts ya2n 言 is to speak up and to formally propose or suggest something, typically to a superior. Yu3 語 does not have such usages and is almost always informal. Formal serious discussion with question and answer tends to be ya2n 言and not yu3 語.

3. WL claims that that for "proverb, saying" one generally uses yu3 語 and not ya2n 言. SSC has over 50 examples where ya2n 言 means "saying". Zuo Zhao 27.2.3(516 B.C.) Ya2ng Bo2ju4n 1483; Wa2ng Sho3uqia1n et al.1368 tr. Legge:721

「上國有言曰: "The upper States have a saying

『不索, that if you do not seeek for a thing

何獲?』 you will not get it."

The special feature of the sayings ya2n 言, regularly introduced by yo3u ya2n 有言 "there is/was a saying", is that they tend to be located or even attributed as bon-mots or geflŸgelte Worte to a person or even an author. Yu3 語 on the other hand is only once in SSC attributed to someone specific (the people of the state of So4ng), and the word generally tends to refer to current popular sayings even when the phrase bi3 yu3 鄙語 is not used.

4. WL compares“言”和“語”. But it remains quite unclear whether the reference is to yu3 語 or yu4 語, two very different words. When WL talk about the nominal uses of 語 the reference must be to yu3 語, whereas when they speak of the meaning "tell" for 語 the reference is to yu4 語. As a result the article is a complete mess.

This example shows up clearly that the method of attaching synonym discussions to words rather than to words under a given interpretation is manifestly wrong and thoroughly confusing.

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 234ff

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 217

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 374

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 378

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

DISCOURSE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.315

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.310

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 338

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 75B

AEUSSERUNG(SPRACHLICHE)

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 233
  • vtoS : 180
  • vtoN : 146
  • NPab : 55
  • vt[oN] : 46
  • vi : 33
  • VPi : 21
  • VPtoS : 17
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 15
  • vt(oN) : 13
  • vt(0)oS : 11
  • vt+V[0] : 10
  • nab[.post-N] : 9
  • vtoNPab{S} : 8
  • vttoN.+S : 7
  • vt[oN] : 6
  • vadN : 5
  • VPttoN.+S : 5
  • vt(oS) : 4
  • vtoN.+VtoS : 4
  • nab.post-N : 3
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 3
  • VPt+.VtoS : 3
  • vt+prep+N : 3
  • n : 2
  • vtoS.post-V : 2
  • vtpost-.VtoN : 2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 2
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • vtoS.postV : 2
  • vt[0]oS : 2
  • vt+Vt.oS : 2
  • VPt(0)oS : 2
  • nab.adV : 1
  • vt+prep+N.adV : 1
  • vtoN.+V : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 1
  • vt.red(oN) : 1
  • vt[0](oN) : 1
  • VPttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • VPt+prep+N.+VtoS : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • vttoN{PIVOT}.+S{QUOTE} : 1
  • vt(oN1.)post-VtoN2 : 1
  • vi.red : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • NPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 120
  • 說苑 : 91
  • 論語 : 66
  • 荀子 : 55
  • 賢愚經 : 52
  • 祖堂集 : 49
  • 春秋左傳 : 44
  • 孟子 : 43
  • 孝經 : 39
  • 禮記 : 26
  • 百喻經 : 26
  • 莊子 : 25
  • 戰國策 : 24
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 23
  • 臨濟錄 : 23
  • 韓詩外傳 : 16
  • 史記 : 15
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 15
  • 論衡 : 15
  • 管子 : 10
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 10
  • 毛詩 : 8
  • 六祖壇經 : 8
  • 尚書 : 7
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 6
  • 墨子 : 5
  • 列子 : 5
  • 類說 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 5
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 太平經 : 3
  • 孫子 : 3
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 五行 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 2
  • 景德傳燈錄 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 國語 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 春秋繁露 : 1
  • 穆天子傳 : 1

Words

   yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 320 Attributions

Yán 言 is to speak up, propose, typically in public, and on one's own initiative, to maintain something, and the word can indroduce direct speech as well as occasionally very limited indirect speech.

  • vispeak up publicly, preach
  • nabactpublic speech; the making of public statements; the public expression of personal opinion
  • nabactword; sentence; doctrine as expressed in words
  • nabdispositionability to speak
  • nabobjectstatements of opinion, proposal; public or formal utterance which commits the speaker; pronouncement; public or formal pronouncement, public or formal suggestion; Sometimes less specifically: proposal; what one says, speech; language; public proposal, public speech, words
  • nadVinstrumentto V through one's words
  • vadVdeclaring (say): 言曰
  • vt(oN)speak up on a contextually determinate matter
  • vt(oS)say so
  • vt[oN]express oneself in words 能言; speak up; 提意見, come up with statements, come up with one's personal opinions; state one's personal opinion of things; make a proposal
  • vt+prep+N.adVdeclare in front of
  • vt+V[0]say that one V-s
  • vtoNarticulate, express; propose; maintain, propose as true; pronounce on, speak up on, speak of (other's bad points); (abstractly) speak of (orally or in writing); inform of; suggest (often formally at court)
  • vtoNfigurative(a document etc) says 書言之
  • vtoNinchoativebegin to pronounce on; start to speak on
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • vtoNpassivebe spoken of in public, be pronounced on in public, be said in public
  • vtoNpsychtalk about (oneself)
  • vtoNPab{S}figurativedeclare (non-orally) that S
  • vtoS.postVsay S 白佛言S
  • vtoSimperativesay!
  • vtoSindirect-speechsay that S
  • vtoSquotation(rarely with indirect speech or quasi indirect speech) say S; say that S
  • vtpost-.VtoNactenter into discussions with (someone)
  • vttoN.+Stell N: S
  • vttoN.+V[0]psychclaim (oneself) to V [Indirect speech!)
  • vttoN1.+N2take up the matter N1 with N2, speak up on matter N1 to N2
  • viactstart to speak
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2speak of N1 to N2
  • vt[oN]physicalpronounce words (as a parrot might be able to do)
  • vtoNmention; refer to; speak of
  • nab[post-N.]adVin his public utterings, in his speech
  • nab.post-Nmessage/pronouncement of N
  • vtoNderivedunmarked nominalisation: to speak up on N
  • nab[.post-N]one's literary formulations; one's literary production, one's words; one's diction
  • viactuse language
   yuē OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 121 Attributions

The most colourless and general way of referring to any act of saying attributed to any subject, no matter whether animate or inanimate, something is yuē 曰, and the verb introduces direct speech.

  • vt(0)oSone says; you say; it is said, as in 故曰 "thus it is said", German: "Daher heisst es..." cf. MO 於《武觀》曰:"In the Wǔguān IT says..." 於《仲虺之告》曰: 於先王之書《仲虺之告》曰:
  • vtoNmention; mention (the word X); use (an expression)
  • vtoS.post-Vsay (modified by a deverbal adverb) 且曰 [[But what about the construction of the preceding V as a main verb? 待考 CH]]
  • vtoS.postV(heard) as follows 聞之曰
  • vtoScontinuego on to say: "S" (with omitted subject)
  • vtoSdirect-speechsay: S
  • vtoSfigurativesay S (as of the mind)
  • vtoSfigurativerun (as follows); say something to the effect that S 不曰
  • vtoSimperativeyou should say!, say!
  • vtoSindirect-speechto say, that A; to declare that S
  • vtoStransmitted speechto say (on behalf of somebody): "S"
  • vtoSof texts, untensed: say, run as follow, "lauten"
   yǔ OC: ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɤ 56 Attributions

Yǔ 語 is to say something as part of typically informal conversation. Contrast yù 語 "tell, inform" in REPORT.

  • nabacttalk; (often negative:) chatter
  • nabtextwhat is said > discourse (this can refer to spoken word and the written word); message
  • nadVverbally; by use of words/speech
  • viactengage in a dialogue; talk along, chatter
  • vt[oN]say something
  • vt+Vt.oSsay that 語曰
  • vtoN.+VtoStell N: S 語x曰:
  • vtoN.+VtoSN=nonhutell N, saying
  • vtoNnegativetalk loosely about (pejorative); speak informally in favour of
  • vtoNtalk about
  • vtoNN=audiencespeak to
  • vtoNN=topicspeak of N
  • vtoSspeak of the fact that S
  • vttoN.+Stell N S
   dào OC: ɡ-luuʔ MC: dɑu 36 Attributions

Dào 道 "speak of with authority, speak of adequately; quote" often involves quotation or especially serious discussion of important points, or the relating of important evidence.

  • viactspeak up
  • vt.red(oN)speak, speak!
  • vt(oN1.)post-VtoN2tell N2 a contextually defined N1
  • vt[0](oN)imperativespeak! say it!
  • vt[0]oSit is said that
  • vtoNcite, quote; advocate, maintain (that); mention; bring up as a subject
  • vtoNpsychspeak about (oneself)
  • vtoSsay S
  • vtoSimperativesay "..."!
  • vtoSS=indirect.speechsay that S
  • vt(oN)speak of a contextually determined object
  • vtoNpassivebe quoted, be advocated
  • vt[oN]be spoken about; be quoted
言語   yán yǔ OC: ŋan ŋaʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐn ŋi̯ɤ 34 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}actSPEAKING UP AND CONVERSING> use of language
  • NPabactspeech; way of talking
  • NPabtextspeech, phrase
  • NPadNoral; based on words
  • VPiactspeak, talk
   yún OC: ɢun MC: ɦi̯un 33 Attributions

Yún 云 is used of books as well as persons and tends to refer to what are typically construed as authoritative acts of saying, and the word often has to be taken figuratively as "run as follows".

  • nabactutterances, way of talking
  • viact(generally) speak, use language; speak up
  • vitransitiveof persons, tensed: say so, say it; talk about it; sometimes of non-human and non-speaking subjects, by extension: express it
  • vt[0]oSone says S
  • vtoNpassivebe spoken about, be mentioned
  • vtoNPab{S}indirect-speechsay that S 卜云其吉 !!!
  • vtoSS=indirect.speechsay that
  • vtoSsubject=human(often used within the scope of other verbs of speaking like yuē 曰) untensed, of persons, vt: (generally tend to) say, (generally tend to) claim:; (untensed) say:
  • vtoSsubject=humansay as follows, speak as follows
  • vtoSsubject=textof texts, untensed: say, run as follows, German: lauten
  • vt(oS)say the same thing
  • vt(oN)express this contextually determinate thing vividly
  • vt[oN]speak so, say so
   cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 30 Attributions

Cí 辭 is primarily an act of careful articulation and rhetorical formulation.

  • nabtexttext; formulation, statement; sentence; rhetoric CHECK EXAMPLES
  • nabsubmittedspeech; formal submission, also in written form
  • vtoNsay formally; explain properly
  • nab.adVin words
   chēng OC: thjɯŋ MC: tɕhɨŋ 22 Attributions

Chēng 稱 refers in a rather formal historian's style to the making of statements. See also NAME.

  • viactengage in speaking, formulate oneself
  • vtoN1. with quasi-indirect speech vt: declare, say that; with direct speech quotation, vt: quote, bring up the saying: "..."; say:...
  • vtoNobject=causespeak of (something) by way of explanation, refer to (something) as an explanation
  • vtoNobject=quotationutter; quote; shout:... 稱萬歲
  • vtoNreflexive.己speak of (oneself) (typically by way of explanation), declare (oneself) responsible
  • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自say that oneself V-s
  • vttoN{PIVOT}.+N{PRED}reflexive.自claim oneself to be N
  • vtoSsay S, maintain that S
   shuō OC: lʰod MC: ɕiɛt 19 Attributions
  • nabactspeech; discourse
  • vtoN.+Vsay that N V-s
  • vtoN.+VtoSpronounce a text N which says S
  • vtoNN=topicmention talk about
  • vtoNobject=textuse words N; pronounce (a text etc); preach (a sutra)
  • vtoSmaintain S; say S
  • nab[.post-N]their explanatory discourse
   wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 16 Attributions

Wèi 謂 introduces speech in a rather formal way that comes close in function to the mode of indirect speech although syntactically it introduces direct speech. See NAME.

  • vtoSquotationsay: S
  • vttoN.+V[0]say about N that it V-s
  • vttoN{PIVOT}.+S{QUOTE}psychsay about (oneself) that S
  • vt(oN)say, mention (a contextually determinate fact)
  • vtoNpronounce
   tán OC: ɡ-laam MC: dɑm 13 Attributions

Tán 談 refers to informal chatter, mostly with some pejorative connotation.

  • nabactchattering, chatter; holding forth
  • vadNchattering, talkative
  • viacttalk (typically with fluency and ease)
  • vt(oN)talk about the contextually determinate matter
  • vtoNnegativechatter about
  • vtoNspeak of, mention
宣言   xuān yán OC: sqon ŋan MC: siɛn ŋi̯ɐn 12 Attributions
  • NPabactpublic declaration
  • VPt(oN)make the contextually determinate announcement
  • VPt+.VtoSdeclare publicly
  • VPt+prep+N.+VtoSdeclare S to N
  • VPtoSdeclare: S
  • VPttoN.+Sdeclare that S
  • VPttoN1.+prep+N2declare N1 to N2
白言   bái yán OC: braaɡ ŋan MC: bɣɛk ŋi̯ɐn 12 Attributions
  • vtoSquotationsay politely
言曰   yán yuē OC: ŋan ɢʷad MC: ŋi̯ɐn ɦi̯ɐt 10 Attributions
  • VPtoSquotationdeclare that S, state that S; make the announcement S
   jǔ OC: klaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ 9 Attributions

Jǔ 舉 is a technical term referring to the bringing up of a subject, and the subject of this verb is always a person, not a text.

  • viactmake suggestions, bring things up in formal discussion
  • vt(oN)mention, bring up, cite (with contextually determinate N)
  • vt+prep+Ncite something to, bring something orally up to
  • vtoNuse as a word; bring up; cite
   huà OC: ɡroods MC: ɦɣɛi 8 Attributions
  • nabtextwhat is said > phrase, saying
   qǐng OC: tsheŋʔ MC: tshiɛŋ 8 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]suggest (as an inferior) that one should V, beg to V; ask permission (to do something one is offering to do in serving one's superiors);
   chén OC: ɡrliŋ MC: ɖin 8 Attributions
  • vadNpassiveputr forward, uttered
  • viactexpress an opinion, put something forward
  • vt(oN)imperativespeak about a contextually determiate thing
  • vtoNexpress (a promise etc), put forward (a statement etc)
語言   yǔ yán OC: ŋaʔ ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɤ ŋi̯ɐn 7 Attributions
  • NPabacttalk; overt talk; speech, use of languageBUDDH: lingusitic articulation
  • VPiactspeak
  • VPtt(oN.)+Ssay S to N
   chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 6 Attributions
  • vadNspoken
  • vtoNput forward or advocate (a certain intellectual position); utter
  • vtoNpassive(of words) be uttered
  • vtoNutter
   kǒu OC: khooʔ MC: khu 6 Attributions
  • nfigurative"mouths"> person in so far as he speaks; speaker
  • nabactloose talk; way of talking; act of speaking
  • nwhat one emits from one's mouth > speech, spec. neg. defamatory speech
   shēng OC: qjeŋ MC: ɕiɛŋ 6 Attributions
  • nabactway of speaking; facon de parler DC: 3.指言語。《孟子·公孫丑上》:"無嚴諸侯,惡聲至,必反之。" 焦循 正義:"惡聲,猶惡言也。"《史記·樂毅列傳》:"臣聞古之君子,交絕不出惡聲。" 清 陳澧 《東塾讀書記·小學》:"意者象乎事物而構之者也,聲者象乎意而宣之者也。"
  • nabtextbound morpheme, in 聲聞: probably refers to sermon heard from the Buddha
語話   yǔ huà OC: ŋaʔ ɡroods MC: ŋi̯ɤ ɦɣɛi 6 Attributions
  • NPabtextwhat is said > utterance, (spoken) phrase
  • VPiactto speak, have a conversation, converse
  • VPtoNto speak with, to have a discussion with
   yǐn OC: liŋʔ MC: jin 5 Attributions
  • vtoNPab{S}cite; bring up
   bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 5 Attributions
  • nabtextwhat has been said
  • vtoNpronounce, enunciate
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2speak of the contextually determinate N1 to N2
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2report the contextually determinate matter N1 to the audience N2
  • vttoN.+Saddress oneself politely to a superior
   zhǔ OC: tjoɡ MC: tɕi̯ok 3 Attributions
  • vtoNspeak to (someone)
   chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNmaintain (a claim), take the position that; maintain (a set standard)
  • vtoNpassivebe maintained, be upheld as an intellectual position
句語   jù yǔ OC: kos ŋaʔ MC: ki̯o ŋi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • NPabtextphrase, sentence, text passage
話言   huà yán OC: ɡroods ŋan MC: ɦɣɛi ŋi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • NPabact(especially instructive) speech, words; (solemnly given) words
開口   kāi kǒu OC: khɯɯl khooʔ MC: khəi khu 3 Attributions
  • VPiinchoativestart to speak
作是言   zuò shì yán OC: tsaaɡ ɡljeʔ ŋan MC: tsɑk dʑiɛ ŋi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • VPtoSquotationsay; say to oneself
   cí OC: sɢlɯ MC: zɨ 2 Attributions
  • nabtextutterance, expression
   zhào OC: kljews MC: tɕiɛu 2 Attributions
  • viactspeak up formally to make an important point
  • vtoNconvey a message to N
   liǎng OC: raŋʔ MC: li̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: speech with sows discord; skr. paiṣunya, pali pisuṇā-vācā (one of the ten evil deeds, in some Chinese classification systems regarded as only minor offence)
  • VPiactspeak with two tongues
出言   chū yán OC: khljud ŋan MC: tɕhʷit ŋi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • VPiactspeak
  • VPtoSquotationsay: S
惡口   è kǒu OC: qaaɡ khooʔ MC: ʔɑk khu 2 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: evil speech (this is one of the activities included in the 'ten evil deeds' and refers to rude and vulgar speech, or speech in which one slanders other people)
  • VPiactengage in evil speech
曰若   yuē ruò OC: ɢʷad njaɡ MC: ɦi̯ɐt ȵi̯ɐk 2 Attributions
  • VPt(0)oSThe text runs as follows: ??? [Meaning and syntax unclear and highly controversial!]
言詞   yán cí OC: ŋan sɢlɯ MC: ŋi̯ɐn zɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPabtextwords, speech
言辭   yán cí OC: ŋan zɯ MC: ŋi̯ɐn zɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactformulations; speeches
談語   tán yǔ OC: ɡ-laam ŋaʔ MC: dɑm ŋi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • VPiacttalk along, keep engaging in conversation
諮白   zī bái OC: sti braaɡ MC: tsi bɣɛk 2 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2report, tell the contextually determinate N1 to the person N2
  • VPttoN.+Sreport/tell S to the person N
辭命   cí mìng OC: zɯ mɢreŋs MC: zɨ mɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}nonreferentialmaking formulations; rhetorics
   fù MC: bjuwk OC: buɡ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNtry to say in argument, get at in dialogue
   nán OC: rnoom MC: ɳɣɛm 1 Attribution
  • vi.red:adNonomatopoeiawith a low voice, with a mumbling sound
  • vi.redonomatopoeiato speak with a low voice, to whisper (sometimes also referring to imitating the sounds of birds)
   zǔn OC: tsuunʔ MC: tsuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vichat, chatter
   zhuàn OC: sɡroonʔ MC: ɖʐɣan 1 Attribution
  • nabtextproposal??
   tà OC: duub MC: dəp 1 Attribution
  • viactbabble
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNutter
   guō OC: kood MC: kʷɑt 1 Attribution
  • viacttalk ceaselessly
   míng OC: mreŋ MC: mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactspeak up
   qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 1 Attribution
  • viactspeak the Qí dialect
匈匈   xiōng xiōng OC: qhoŋ qhoŋ MC: hi̯oŋ hi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactbabble; gossip
口說   kǒu shuō OC: khooʔ lʰod MC: khu ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • NPabactovert speech (as opposed to real attitude or thought)
德音   dé yīn OC: tɯɯɡ qrɯm MC: tək ʔim 1 Attribution
  • NPabactfriendly diplomatic messages
持論   chí lùn OC: ɡrlɯ ɡ-ruuns MC: ɖɨ luo̝n 1 Attribution
  • VPiactexpress opinions; hold one's own in discussion [DCD]
啟曰   qǐ yuē OC: kheeʔ ɢʷad MC: khei ɦi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoSquotationbegin as follows> say
舌頭   shé tóu OC: sbljed doo MC: ʑiɛt du 1 Attribution
  • NPabtongue > words, utterance
話頭   huà tóu OC: ɡroods doo MC: ɦɣɛi du 1 Attribution
  • NPabin the Chan BUDDH. context usually referring to a phrase used for teaching purposes; generally: speech ?? HAS TO BE CHECKED!
說言   shuō yán OC: lʰod ŋan MC: ɕiɛt ŋi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPtoSexplain: S
說話   shuō huà OC: lʰod ɡroods MC: ɕiɛt ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPiactengage in converstation, talk to each other, engage in small-talk, chatter
轉話   zhuǎn huà OC: tonʔ ɡroods MC: ʈiɛn ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPabChan BUDDH: a 'turning' word (utterance which can trigger an insight in the student)
橫說豎說   héng shuō shù shuō OC: ɡʷraaŋ lʰod djoʔ lʰod MC: ɦɣaŋ ɕiɛt dʑi̯o ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPiactspeack vertically speak horizontally > engage in useless and superfluous talk; jabber; speak about this and that without focusing on a matter
   jí MC: gip OC: ɡrɯb 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbring up in speech
   zhōng MC: tsyuwng OC: tjuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt[oN]finish one's speech, finish one's utterance
   shēn MC: syin OC: lʰin 1 Attribution
  • vtoNexpound
   yīn MC: 'im OC: qrɯm 1 Attribution
  • ndiction; way of expressing oneself
笑語   xiao4 yǔ MC: -- ngjoX OC: -- ŋaʔ 1 Attribution
  • nabchatter mingled with laughter
口舌   kǒu shé MC: khuwX zyet OC: khooʔ sbljed 1 Attribution
  • NPabuse of words, use of speech; words (as instruments)
   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 0 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]say that one Vs
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • viacttalk and laugh a lot
   tí OC: ɡ-lee MC: dei 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmention, bring up
   qǐ OC: kheeʔ MC: khei 0 Attributions
  • vttoN.+Ssay S to N
   tán OC: ɡ-luum MC: dəm 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmention, talk about
   dǎng OC: taaŋʔ MC: tɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • viSHUOWEN: 直言也。be outspoken
囁嚅   niè rú OC: ŋɡljeb njo MC: ȵiɛp ȵi̯o 0 Attributions
  • NPabactwhisperings
多謝   duō xiè OC: k-laal MC: tɑ zɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2impress the contextually determinate N1 upon the N2
妄語   wàng yǔ OC: maŋs ŋaʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ ŋi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: deluded/false speech (one of the ten evil deeds; also referred to as xūwàngyǔ 虛妄語, xūkuángyǔ 虛誑語, wàngshé 妄舌)
矢口   shǐ kǒu OC: lʰiʔ khooʔ MC: ɕi khu 0 Attributions
  • VPiactlet fly from the mouth> speak freely, be spontaneous in one's speech 漢 揚雄 《法言‧五百》:"聖人矢口而成言,肆筆而成書。"
舉言   jǔ yán OC: klaʔ ŋan MC: ki̯ɤ ŋi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
  • VPiactbegin to speak
言云   yán yún OC: ŋan ɢun MC: ŋi̯ɐn ɦi̯un 0 Attributions
  • VPtoSS=indirect.speechsay: "..."
詭辭   guǐ cí OC: krolʔ zɯ MC: kiɛ zɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPabtextsophistries
道說   dào shuō OC: ɡ-luuʔ lʰod MC: dɑu ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)speak about the contextually determinate N
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vt[oN]finish one's speech, finish one's utterance
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNtry to say in argument, get at in dialogue
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • ndiction; way of expressing oneself

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: