CHILD  孩子

YOUNG DESCENDENT.
YOUNGSTERLITTLE ONEBOYGIRLBABYNEWBORNINFANTTODDLERCHERUBANGELSCHOOLBOYSCHOOLGIRLMINORJUNIORPRETEENSONDAUGHTERDESCENDANTKIDKIDDIETOTTYKEYOUNG 'UNLADRUG RATANKLE-BITERBRATGUTTERSNIPEURCHINGAMINGAMINE
Taxonoymy

TWINBABYSONDAUGHTERORPHAN

Antonymy

OLD MANADULT

See also

BOY

Kind Of

DESCENDANT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The commonest word for a child is zǐ 子 "son; child (male or female); rarely: baby".

2. Ér 兒 refers to children of fairly young age.

3. Tóng 童 refers to a person as a young child without focusing on whose child it is and the word is often used in compounds.

4. Gōng zǐ 公子 refers specifically to a prince or son by a royal father and his main wife. See PRINCE.

5. Chì zǐ 赤子 refers to a fairly small or new-born child.

6. Ruò zǐ 弱子 and 童子 refer to a very young child.

7. Xiǎo zǐ 小子 is often used for small children but can also refer to people lower in hierachy as for example the disciples of a master (often when the master is addressing them); in addition it is sometimes used by the ruler (when mourning for his parents) and by high officers as humble first person pronoun.

8. Rǔ zǐ 孺子 can refer to very young children, but the word can also refer more generally to youths, especially girls.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 HUMAN AFFAIRS 30.

子,幼兒的通稱,構詞能力強。

孩, “ 咳 ” 的今字,代指從起初會發笑到學步前的幼兒。

嬰,初生幼兒。

孺,兩、三歲前學會走路的幼兒。

兒,囟門未合、未成童的幼兒。

幼,兒童和少年,常作語素。

童,泛指未成年人,常作語素。

Modern Chinese Criteria

兒童

子女

兒女

小朋友

小孩兒

孩童

稚童

童稚

童子

童兒

孩子

孩兒

小孩兒

孩子家

小兒

小人兒

雛兒

幼兒

娃兒

娃娃

娃子

小伢兒

寧馨兒

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 2.43

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CHILD

puer can refer to any male during the years when (s)he is dependent on parents and has no family; in a narrower sense the word can refer to a person between seven and age sixteen.

infans refers to a child of any sex up to the age of seven.

adolescens refers to a youngster beyond the age of sixteen.

juvenis refers to any young person from about the time he comes of age to the first appearances of advanced age; specifically the term normally refers to a youth upto the age of twenty-four.

adolescens refers to a youth below the age of eighteen.

vir refers to a person from the age of thirty.

maturus refers to the man in his ripest years "when the wild fire of youth has evaporated".

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 220

Kind(er):

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 766

Kind, Kinder:

HUANG JINGUI 2006 古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

LIBERI

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.484

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 4.827

KIND

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 371

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

childhood

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.386

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 65

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 2.42

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

CHILDHOOD

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • npost-N : 62
  • NP : 30
  • n : 18
  • NP{vadN} : 12
  • n(post-N) : 8
  • nadN : 8
  • vtoN : 7
  • nm : 4
  • vi : 3
  • nadV : 3
  • n[post-N] : 2
  • VPi : 2
  • NP{N1adN2} : 2
  • NP{PRED} : 2
  • NPpost-N : 1
  • NPadN : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • NP=Npr : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 23
  • 韓非子 : 22
  • 禮記 : 16
  • 論語 : 13
  • 百喻經 : 11
  • 孟子 : 11
  • 賢愚經 : 8
  • 史記 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 孝經 : 5
  • 尚書 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 戰國策 : 3
  • 黃帝內經 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 老子 : 1

Words

   zǐ OC: sklɯʔ MC: tsɨ 88 Attributions

The commonest word for a child is zǐ 子"son; child; rarely: baby".

  • n(post-N)nonreferentiala child in general (the reference often probably being primarily to sons)
  • n=Nprchild Npr
  • nadVanalogyacting like a child, fulfilling one's duty as a filial child
  • npost-Nfemale?daughter
  • npost-Nmale of femaleoffspring; child; also: child (i.e. daughter)
  • npost-Nmale?son
  • npost-Nnon-humannon-human offspring
  • viactact as a child should
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat like a son; treat like one's children
  • npluralchildren
  • n(post-N)children of the contextually determinate N
  • n[post-N]one's child
   tóng OC: dooŋ MC: duŋ 11 Attributions

Tóng 童 refers to a person as a young male child without focussing on whose child it is.

  • nchild (a woman calls herself 小童 in front of the emperor)
  • nadNchildren's (not specifically boy's) (ditty etc童謠, 童心); adolescent 童男女
赤子   chì zǐ OC: khjaɡ sklɯʔ MC: tɕhiɛk tsɨ 11 Attributions

Chì zǐ 赤子 refers to a fairly small or new-born child.

  • NP{vadN}little baby
   ér OC: ŋje MC: ȵiɛ 10 Attributions

Ér 兒 refers to children of fairly young age.

  • n(0){PRED}.adVtimewhen a boy> as a boy
  • nsmall child; sometimes: new baby; later also simply: son (of any age)
  • nadVanalogylike a child SHIJI:兒啼
小兒   xiǎo ér OC: smewʔ ŋje MC: siɛu ȵiɛ 9 Attributions
  • NPsmall child; baby
庶子   shù zǐ OC: qhljaɡs sklɯʔ MC: ɕi̯ɤ tsɨ 9 Attributions
  • NPchild by a mother other than one's main wife
兒子   ér zǐ OC: ŋje sklɯʔ MC: ȵiɛ tsɨ 7 Attributions
  • NPvery small child/baby; boy
  • VPiactact like a child
小子   xiǎo zǐ OC: smewʔ sklɯʔ MC: siɛu tsɨ 5 Attributions

Xiǎo zǐ 小子 is often used for small children but can also refer to people lower in hierachy as for example the disciples of a master (often when the master is addressing them); in addition it is sometimes used by the ruler (when mourning for his parents) and by high officers as humble first person pronoun.

  • NPadN小子侯 minor, not of age
  • NP=Nprthe child NP
  • NP{PRED}be a child
  • NPpost-Nchild belonging to N; boy employed at N
   chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 3 Attributions
  • nmoffspring; product
公子   gōng zǐ OC: klooŋ sklɯʔ MC: kuŋ tsɨ 2 Attributions

Gōng zǐ 公子 refers specifically to a prince or son by a royal father and his main wife. See PRINCE.

  • NP{N1adN2}young man
幼子   yòu zǐ OC: qriws sklɯʔ MC: ʔi̯u tsɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPmere child (younger than the adolescent boy/child 童子)
   ní OC: ŋee MC: ŋei 1 Attribution
  • nloan for 兒: small child
   dì OC: liilʔ MC: dei 1 Attribution
  • nlittle boy
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • nmoffspring
五尺   wǔ chǐ OC: ŋaaʔ thjaɡ MC: ŋuo̝ tɕhiɛk 1 Attribution
  • NP{vadN}child
國子   guó zǐ OC: kʷɯɯɡ sklɯʔ MC: kək tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralchildren of dignitaries
嬰孩   yīng hái OC: qeŋ ɡɯɯ MC: ʔiɛŋ ɦəi 1 Attribution
  • NPsmall child
子女   zǐ nǚ OC: sklɯʔ naʔ MC: tsɨ ɳi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralchildren, irrespective of sex
孩兒   hái ér OC: ɡɯɯ ŋje MC: ɦəi ȵiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPchild
孺子   rú zǐ OC: njos sklɯʔ MC: ȵi̯o tsɨ 1 Attribution

Rǔ zǐ 孺子 can refer to very young children, but the word can also refer more generally to youths, especially girls.

  • NPadVlike a small child
長子   zhǎng zǐ OC: krlaŋʔ sklɯʔ MC: ʈi̯ɐŋ tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPeldest son
僮 / 童   tóng OC: dooŋ MC: duŋ tóng OC: dooŋ MC: duŋ 0 Attributions
  • nadNchildren's (ditties etc)
   hái OC: ɡɯɯ MC: ɦəi 0 Attributions
  • nchild (GY); young of animals (LJ)
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat somebody as a child (LAO)
   rú OC: njos MC: ȵi̯o 0 Attributions

Rú 孺 focusses on the relatively young age of a child that has perhaps just learnt to walk, rather than on descent.

  • na small child from the age where (s)he has just learnt to walk; especially a child as an attractive person
  • nadNof young childhood age 孺人
   xī OC: sqlɯɡ MC: sɨk 0 Attributions
  • nchild
儒子   rú zǐ OC: njo sklɯʔ MC: ȵi̯o tsɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPchild
庶孽   shù niè OC: qhljaɡs ŋred MC: ɕi̯ɤ ŋiɛt 0 Attributions
  • NPpluralchildren from concubines
弱子   ruò zǐ OC: njewɡ sklɯʔ MC: ȵi̯ɐk tsɨ 0 Attributions

Ruò zǐ 弱子 and 童子 refer to a very young child.

    稚子   zhì zǐ OC: ɡrluls sklɯʔ MC: ɖi tsɨ 0 Attributions
    • NPsmall child; small children
    童子   tóng zǐ OC: dooŋ sklɯʔ MC: duŋ tsɨ 0 Attributions

    Ruò zǐ 弱子 and 童子 refer to a very young child.

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: